Higher-Order Defeat and Withholding Judgment



Defeat by higher-order evidence needs defending. Maria Lasonen-Aarnio argues powerfully for the conclusion that higher-order evidence does not have an unlimited capacity to defeat justification. While developing her main argument Lasonen-Aarnio poses two other problems for unlimited higher-order defeat. Some theories of higher-order defeat are not subject to the main argument. The other problems threaten those theories too. The problems will be developed with the aim of finding and evaluating optimal versions. The first offers a reductio argument. The argument will be criticized as employing an unjustifiable assumption. The second problem poses a dilemma. The dilemma will be avoided by supplementing plausible higher-order defeat theories with a view of what justifies withholding judgment.


How to Cite: Conee, E. (2021) “Higher-Order Defeat and Withholding Judgment”, Ergo. 7(0). doi: